There is a foul and one has to quit:
- If during the execution of the stroke one or several balls bound out of the billiard (indicated by "balls outside");
- If the player plays before the three balls are at rest (indicated by "balls in motion");
- If the player uses antoher part of the cue than the leather tip in order to play (indicated by "leather tip");
- If the player, except the attack of his ball in order to execute the stroke, touches any of the balls with part of the cue, with the hand or with any other object (indicated by "touched"); In such a case the touched ball remains at the place which he occupies.
- If the player touches or shifts a ball in order to remove a strange object which is attached to it instead of demanding that the arbiter does it (indicated by "touched");
- If the player shifts a ball by means of a direct or indirect contact without the shifting being the direct consequence of the execution of the stroke (indicated by "touched");
- If the player pushes through (indicated by "pushed through"). There is a pushing through:
- as soon as the leather tip comes several times into contact with the ball set in motion;
- as soon as the leather tip is still in contact with the cue-ball at the moment where it touches the second ball;
- as soon as the leather tip is still in contact with the cue-ball at the moment where it touches the cushion;
- If the player plays directly with the cue-ball the cushion with which it would be in contact, without having detached it by means of a detached massé stroke in advance (indicated by "ball in contact);
- If at the moment where the player touches his ball he does not touch the floor with at least one foot (indicated by "foot not on the floor"); The use of special shoes is not admitted.
- If the player draws visible marking points on the playing surface, on the cushion or on the frame (indicated by "marked");
- If during the inning or in the course of a serie the referee states that the player does not play with his ball (indicated by "wrong ball");
- If the player does not respect the particluar rules of the various kinds of game (indicated according to the rules);
- If in spite of the demand of the referee the player does not play within the appointed period of time (indicated by "not played").
f the foul defined by article 41.6 is wilfully committed the innocent player whose turn arrives may demand that the referee once again places the ball or the balls as exactly as possible at the positions which they occupied before the incident if he thinks that this position would be more favourable for him.
- If a cannon is made after a foul having been committed which has not been stated the cannon is retained and the player must not quit.
- Each fault committed by a third person, including the referee which causes compulsory shifting of the balls is not ascribed to the player. In this case the balls are once again placed by the referee as exactly as possible at the position which they occupied or would have occupied.